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Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains

When a learning objective is well written and accurately describes what you want the participant to know or what knowledge to be gained then it will guide the instructor to properly developing and structuring the course. To better understand this concept we refer to a primary philosophy shared by many leading educators, Bloom’s Taxonomy of Learning Domains.

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a model developed by educational expert Dr Benjamin S. Bloom that classifies learning objectives into a hierarchical structure according to knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking on a particular subject. The higher levels focus on the “mastery” of subjects and the promotion of higher forms of thinking, rather than just the simple transferring of facts.

Bloom demonstrated that most teaching focuses on fact-transfer and information recall, rather than true meaningful personal development.

Bloom’s The Taxonomy is a clear and effective model, for the explanation and application of learning objectives, teaching and training methods, and measurement of learning outcomes.

It provides a structure for planning, designing, assessing and evaluating training and learning effectiveness. The model helps to ensure that training delivers appropriate content for learners, and also provides a template by which you can assess the validity and coverage of existing training


Arranged in order from the simplest level of learning (i.e. REMEMBERING) to the most complex level of learning (i.e. CREATING).

is defined as memorizing verbatim information. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information.

arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat

is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another (words to numbers), by interpreting material (explaining or summarizing), and by estimating future trends (predicting consequences or effects). These learning outcomes go one step beyond the simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding.

classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate

refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those under comprehension.

apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write

refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationships between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved. Learning outcomes here represent a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and the structural form of the material.

analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test

is concerned with the ability to judge the value of material (statement, novel, poem, research report) for a given purpose. The judgments are to be based on definite criteria. These may be internal criteria (organization) or external criteria (relevance to the purpose) and the student may determine the criteria or be given them. Learning outcomes in this area are highest in the cognitive hierarchy because they contain elements of all the other categories, plus conscious value judgments based on clearly defined criteria.

appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate

refers to the ability to put parts together to form a new whole. This may involve the production of a unique communication (theme or speech), a plan of operations (research proposal), or a set of abstract relations (scheme for classifying information). Learning outcomes in this area stress creative behaviors, with major emphasis on the formulation of new patterns or structures.

arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write


Suggestion: restructure these examples into concise, well-structured learning objectives, following the Behavior-Condition-Criteria model. Applying and Creating are already great. I deleted the second part of Evaluating which I think makes it ok. Not sure what to do with Analyzing. What do you think?

List the key characteristics of the major green product rating standards?

Effective Instructional formats:
Classroom, web cast, pod cast, site tours and home study.

Given an existing budget, describe the positive and negative effects of applying different rating standards to the project.

Effective Instructional formats:
Classroom, webinar, case study, and independent study.

Example: Choose which of the various product certifications best applies to your selection and use of sustainable products. Use either first-, second-, or third-party certifying labels.

Effective Instructional formats:
Classroom, web cast, pod cast, and home study.

Example: Calculate the cost differentiation after reviewing at least 5 ways green product ratings may need to evolve in order to truly address a sustaining future. Using an existing project, what would be the difference in high-end building cost estimates of the project in 2025?

Effective Instructional formats:
Classroom, webinar, case study, and independent study.

Using 5 different green product ratings, predict how they might evolve in order to truly address a sustaining future.
Effective Instructional formats:
Classroom, webinar, case study, and independent study.

Using a BIM model design a new security entrance for a visitors center that meet Virginia building code standards.

Effective Instructional formats:
Classroom, webinar, case study, and independent study.


Most of the content found on this page was taken from the following sources:

Major categories in the cognitive domain of the taxonomy of educational objectives (Bloom, 1956)

A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives*

249 Bloom’s Taxonomy Verbs For Critical Thinking


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